Origin: Hindustani music originated in North India (during the Delhi Sultanate Period), while Carnatic music originated in South India (during the Bhakti Period).
Ragas: Hindustani music has a different set of ragas compared to Carnatic music.
Improvisation: Hindustani music places a greater emphasis on improvisation, while Carnatic music is more structured and follows strict rules for composition and presentation.
Style: Hindustani music is more emotional and expressive, while Carnatic music is characterized by its technical virtuosity and rhythmic complexities.
Percussion: Hindustani music typically features tabla as its main percussion instrument, while mridangam is the primary percussion instrument in Carnatic music.